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Gazpacho consumption is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced hypertension in a high cardiovascular risk cohort. Cross-sectional study of the PREDIMED trial

  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    A. Medina-Remón
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA. Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Spain

    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    A. Vallverdú-Queralt
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA. Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Spain

    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    S. Arranz
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Department of Internal Medicine, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    E. Ros
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    M.A. Martínez-González
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    E. Sacanella
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Department of Internal Medicine, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    M.I. Covas
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, IMIM-Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    D. Corella
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    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Department of Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    J. Salas-Salvadó
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Human Nutrition Unit, School of Medicine, IISPV, University Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    E. Gómez-Gracia
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Malaga, Málaga, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    V. Ruiz-Gutiérrez
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Nutrition and Lipids Metabolism, Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Sevilla, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    J. Lapetra
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Sevilla, San Pablo Health Center, Sevilla, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    M. García-Valdueza
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Institut Universitari d′Investigació en Ciències de la Salut(IUNICS), Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    F. Arós
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    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    Clinical Trials Unit, Hospital Universitario de Araba(HUA), Vitoria, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    G.T. Saez
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    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Service of Clinical Analysis, Hospital General Universitario, Universitat de Valencia, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    L. Serra-Majem
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    X. Pinto
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Lipid Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, IDIBELL-Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, FIPEC, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    E. Vinyoles
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    Mina Primary Care Center, University of Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    R. Estruch
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain

    Department of Internal Medicine, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    R.M. Lamuela-Raventos
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Tel.: +34 934034843; fax: +34 934035931.
    Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
    Affiliations
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA. Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Spain

    CIBER:CB06/03 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain

    RETICS RD06/0045, ISCIII, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 On behalf of the PREDIMED Study Investigators.
Published:November 12, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.07.008

      Abstract

      Background and aim

      Hypertension is a major public health problem and a leading cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries, affecting one-quarter of the world's adult population. Our aim was to evaluate whether the consumption of gazpacho, a Mediterranean vegetable-based cold soup rich in phytochemicals, is associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and/or reduced prevalence of hypertension in individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

      Methods and results

      We selected 3995 individuals (58% women, mean age 67 y) at high cardiovascular risk (81% hypertensive) recruited into the PREDIMED study. BP, weight, and dietary and physical activity data were collected. In multivariate linear regression analyses, after adjustment, moderate and high gazpacho consumption categories were associated with reduced mean systolic BP of −1.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): −3.4; −0.6] and −2.6 mm Hg (CI: −4.2; −1.0), respectively, and reduced diastolic BP of −1.5 mm Hg (CI: −2.3; −0.6) and −1.9 mm Hg (CI: −2.8; −1.1). By multiple-adjusted logistic regression analysis, gazpacho consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, with OR = 0.85 (CI: 0.73; 0.99) for each 250 g/week increase and OR = 0.73 (CI: 0.55; 0.98) for high gazpacho consumption groups compared to the no-consumption group.

      Conclusions

      Gazpacho consumption was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP and prevalence of hypertension in a cross-sectional Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. The association between gazpacho intake and reduction of BP is probably due to synergy among several bioactive compounds present in the vegetable ingredients used to make the recipe.

      Keywords

      Acronyms:

      BP (blood pressure), CI (confidence interval), DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), FFQ (food frequency questionnaire), OR (Odds ratio), PREDIMED (prevention with Mediterranean diet study), SD (standard deviations), TMD (traditional Mediterranean diet)
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