Background and Aims
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that low-glycemic index diets could protect against weight gain. However, the relationship between these diets and adipokines or inflammatory markers is unclear. In the present study we examine how the dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) are associated with several adipokines and related metabolic risk markers of obesity and diabetes in a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner.
Methods and Results
511 elderly community-dwelling men and women at high cardiovascular risk were recruited for the PREDIMED trial. Dietary data were collected at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The GI and GL were calculated. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and other metabolic risk markers were measured at baseline and after 1 year. At baseline, subjects in the highest quartiles of GI showed significantly higher levels of TNF and IL-6 than those in the lowest quartiles. Dietary GI index was negatively related to plasma leptin and adiponectin levels. After 1 year of follow-up, subjects with a higher increase in dietary GI or GL showed a greater reduction in leptin and adiponectin plasma levels. There was no association between GI or GL and the other metabolic markers measured.
Our results suggest that the consumption of high-GI or high-GL diets may modulate plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, both adipostatic molecules implicated in energy balance and cardiometabolic risk.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Leptin in human physiology and therapeutics.Front Neuroendocrinol. 2010; 31: 377-393https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.06.002
- Adiponectin and energy homeostasis: consensus and controversy.J Nutr Biochem. 2009; 20: 831-839https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.06.003
- Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.Am J Clin Nutr. 1981; 34: 362-366
- Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women.JAMA. 1997; 277: 472-477
- Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study.Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 905-911https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29620
- Association of glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of incident coronary heart disease among Whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.Ann Epidemiol. 2010; 20: 610-616https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.05.008
- Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; (CD005105)
- Dietary glycemic load and type 2 diabetes: modeling the glucose-raising potential of carbohydrates for prevention.Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 675-677https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.30187
- Dietary fibers and glycemic load, obesity, and plasma adiponectin levels in women with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 1501-1505
- Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women.Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 207-211
- Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.Nutrition. 2008; 24: 401-406https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2007.12.017
- Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, and incidence of heart failure events: a prospective study of middle-aged and elderly women.J Am Coll Nutr. 2010; 29: 65-71
- The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein.Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 114-125https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28339
- The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006; 14: 2200-2209
- Effects of glycemic load on metabolic risk markers in subjects at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome.Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 366-374https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28339
Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Ros E, Covas MI, Fiol M, et al. Cohort profile: design and methods of the PREDIMED study. Int J Epidemiol, [e-pub ahead of print] 20 December 2010, doi:10.1093/ije/dyq250.
- Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain.Br J Nutr. 2010; 103: 1808-1816https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509993837
- International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008.Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 2281-2283
- Determinants of diet glycemic index calculated retrospectively from diet records of 342 individuals with non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus.Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 1265-1269
- Development of a glycemic index database for food frequency questionnaires used in epidemiologic studies.J Nutr. 2006; 136: 1604-1609
- Issues in analysis and presentation of dietary data. Nutritional epidemiology.Oxford University Press, New York1998
- Adipokines as novel modulators of lipid metabolism.Trends Biochem Sci. 2009; 34: 500-510https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-9-53
- Negative regulation of leptin by chronic high-glycemic index starch diet.Metabolism. 2000; 49: 764-769
- A high glycemic meal suppresses the postprandial leptin response in normal healthy adults.Ann Nutr Metab. 2007; 51: 512-518https://doi.org/10.1159/000112309
- Leptin in the regulation of energy balance.Nutr Hosp. 2002; 17: 42-48
- Relationship of satiety to postprandial glycaemic, insulin and cholecystokinin responses.Appetite. 1992; 18: 129-141
- Adipocyte-derived plasma protein, adiponectin, suppresses lipid accumulation and class A scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.Circulation. 2001; 103: 1057-1063
- Pioglitazone ameliorates insulin resistance and diabetes by both adiponectin-dependent and -independent pathways.J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 8748-8755
Published online: January 04, 2012
Accepted: September 20, 2011
Received in revised form: September 19, 2011
Received: May 10, 2011
© 2011 Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.