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Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes

  • S.K. Nishi
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • C.W.C. Kendall
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada. Tel.: +1 416 867 7475; fax: +1 416 867 7495.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
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  • R.P. Bazinet
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • B. Bashyam
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • C.A. Ireland
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • L.S.A. Augustin
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • S. Blanco Mejia
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • J.L. Sievenpiper
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
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  • D.J.A. Jenkins
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes.

      Methods and results

      117 subjects with type 2 diabetes consumed one of three iso-energetic (mean 475 kcal/d) supplements for 12 weeks: 1. full-dose nuts (50–100 g/d); 2. half-dose nuts with half-dose muffins; and 3. full-dose muffins. In this secondary analysis, fatty acid concentrations in the phospholipid, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester fractions from fasting blood samples obtained at baseline and week 12 were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatography. Full-dose nut supplementation significantly increased serum oleic acid (OA) and MUFAs compared to the control in the phospholipid fraction (OA: P = 0.036; MUFAs: P = 0.024). Inverse associations were found with changes in CHD risk versus changes in OA and MUFAs in the triacylglycerol (r = −0.256, P = 0.011; r = −0.228, P = 0.024, respectively) and phospholipid (r = −0.278, P = 0.006; r = −0.260, P = 0.010, respectively) fractions. In the cholesteryl ester fraction, change in MUFAs was inversely associated with markers of glycemic control (HbA1c: r = −0.250, P = 0.013; fasting blood glucose: r = −0.395, P < 0.0001).

      Conclusion

      Nut consumption increased OA and MUFA content of the serum phospholipid fraction, which was inversely associated with CHD risk factors and 10-year CHD risk.

      Clinical Trial Reg. No.

      Keywords

      Acronyms:

      MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acid), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid), SFA (saturated fatty acid), FFA (free fatty acid), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), OA (oleic acid), CHD (coronary heart disease), HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c), FAME (fatty acid methyl esters), NCEP (National Cholesterol Education Program)
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