- •Longitudinal analyses of children's dietary intake and lipid profiles.
- •50% of the energy consumed by children comes from processed and ultra-processed foods.
- •Ultra-processed foods are palatable, addictive and attractive.
- •Ultra-processed foods consumption affects lipid concentrations.
- •Dysmetabolic effect of ultra-processed foods may even manifest themselves in children.
Background and Aims
Cardiovascular disease development is related to known risk factors (such as diet and blood lipids) that begin in childhood. Among dietary factors, the consumption of ultra-processing products has received attention. This study investigated whether children's consumption of processed and ultra-processing products at preschool age predicted an increase in lipid concentrations from preschool to school age.
Methods and Results
Cohort study conducted with 345 children of low socioeconomic status from São Leopoldo, Brazil, aged 3–4 years and 7–8 years. Blood tests were done to measure lipid profile. Dietary data were collected through 24-h recalls and the children's processed and ultra-processing product intake was assessed. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between processed and ultra-processed product intake at 3–4 years on changes in lipid concentrations from preschool to school age. The percentage of daily energy provided by processed and ultra-processed products was 42.6 ± 8.5 at preschool age and 49.2 ± 9.5 at school age, on average. In terms of energy intake, the main products consumed were breads, savoury snacks, cookies, candy and other sweets in both age groups. Ultra-processed product consumption at preschool age was a predictor of a higher increase in total cholesterol (β = 0.430; P = 0.046) and LDL cholesterol (β = 0.369; P = 0.047) from preschool to school age.
Our data suggest that early ultra-processed product consumption played a role in altering lipoprotein profiles in children from a low-income community in Brazil. These results are important to understanding the role of food processing and the early dietary determinants of cardiovascular disease.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics–2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association.Circulation. 2013 Jan 1; 127: 143-152https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e318282ab8f
- Estimating deaths from cardiovascular disease: a review of global methodologies of mortality measurement.Circulation. 2013 Feb 12; 127: 749-756https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.128413
- Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes retained from childhood to adulthood predict adult outcomes: the Princeton LRC follow-up study.Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2012 Apr 16; 2012: 6https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-9856-2012-6
- Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents; national heart, lung, and blood institute. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report.Pediatrics. 2011 Dec; 128: S213-S256https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-2107C
- Early origins of overeating: tracking between early food habits and later eating patterns.Curr Obes Reports. 2013; 2: 179-184https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-013-0055-x
- Longitudinal changes in diet from childhood into adulthood with respect to risk of cardiovascular diseases: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul; 58: 1038-1045https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601929
- Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study.Br J Nutr. 2005 Jun; 93: 923-931https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20051418
- Long-term dietary patterns and carotid artery intima media thickness: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study.Br J Nutr. 2009 Nov; 102: 1507-1512https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711450999064X
- Factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in a national sample of youths: CASPIAN study.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Sep; 18: 461-470https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2007.02.014
- Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.Eur J Epidemiol. 2013 Feb; 28: 119-130https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-013-9783-1
- Diet and blood lipids in 1–4 year-old children.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct; 23: 980-986https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2012.10.007
- The food system. Ultra-processing. The big issue for nutrition, disease, health, well-being.World Nutr. December 2012; 3 (Obtainable at): 527-569
- Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries.Lancet. 2013 Feb 23; 381: 670-679https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62089-
- Food classification systems based on food processing: significance and implications for policies and actions: a systematic literature review and assessment.Curr Obes Rep. 2014 Jun; 3: 256-272https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-014-0092-0
- Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil.Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jan; 14: 5-13https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980010003241
- Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada.Public Health Nutr. 2013 Dec; 16: 2240-2248https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012005009
- Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco.PLoS Med. 2012; 9: e1001235https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001235
- Increased contribution of ultra-processed food products in the Brazilian diet (1987-2009).Rev Saude Publica. 2013 Aug; 47: 656-665https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910.2013047004968
- Processed and ultra-processed food products: consumption trends in Canada from 1938 to 2011.Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014; 75 (Spring): 15-21https://doi.org/10.3148/75.1.2014.15
- Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.Obes Rev. 2013; 2013: 21-28https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12107
- Technology, diet, and the burden of chronic disease.JAMA. 2011 Apr 6; 305: 1352-1353https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.380
- Monitoring and benchmarking population diet quality globally: a step-wise approach.Obes Rev. 2013 Oct; 14: 135-149https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12082
- Relationship between ultra-processed foods and metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a Brazilian family doctor program.Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan; 15: 82-87https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001571
- Ultra-processed food products and obesity in brazilian households (2008-2009).PLoS One. 2014 Mar 25; 9 (eCollection 2014): e92752https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092752
- Impacts of the 10 steps to healthy feeding in infants: a randomized field trial.Cad Saude Publica. 2005 Sep-Oct; 21 ([Article in Portuguese]): 1448-1457
- Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents.Bull World Health Organ. 2007 Sep; 85: 660-667https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.07.043497
- The MSM program: web-based statistics package for estimating usual dietary intake using the multiple source method.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul; 65: S87-S91https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.92
- Reduction of risk for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents.Circulation. 2011 Oct 11; 124: 1673-1686https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.016170
- Is fast food addictive?.Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011 Sep; 4: 146-162https://doi.org/10.2174/1874473711104030146
- Marketing foods to children through product packaging: prolific, unhealthy and misleading.Public Health Nutr. 2012 Sep; 15: 1763-1770https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012001231
- Complementary foods and flavor experiences: setting the foundation.Ann Nutr Metab. 2012; 60: 40-50https://doi.org/10.1159/000335337
- Effects of snacks on energy intake: an evolutionary perspective.Appetite. 2006 Jul; 47: 18-23https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2006.02.007
- Television habits in relation to overweight, diet and taste preferences in European children: the IDEFICS study.Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Sep; 27: 705-715https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-012-9718-2
- Dietary sugars stimulate fatty acid synthesis in adults.J Nutr. 2008 Jun; 138: 1039-1046
- Mechanisms for the acute effect of fructose on postprandial lipemia.Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85: 1511-1520
- Saturated fatty acid-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose.J Nutr. 2009 Jan; 139: 1-4https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.098269
- Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in child obesity: systematic review with meta-analysis.Pediatrics. 2012 Dec; 130: e1647-e1671https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1176
Published online: August 19, 2014
Accepted: August 11, 2014
Received in revised form: August 10, 2014
Received: April 2, 2014
© 2014 Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.