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Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

Published:December 30, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2014.12.008

      Highlights

      • Diets high in β-carotene and α-carotene associate with reduced type 2 diabetes risk.
      • Diets high in β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin do not associate with type 2 diabetes risk.
      • The associations of dietary carotenoids and type 2 diabetes risk are not modified by smoking status.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes associate with reduced type 2 diabetes risk.

      Methods and results

      Data from 37,846 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition- Netherlands study were analyzed. Dietary intakes of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein & zeaxanthin and the sum of these carotenoids were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was mainly self-reported, and verified against general practitioner information. Mean ±SD total carotenoid intake was 10 ± 4 mg/day. During a mean ±SD follow-up of 10 ± 2years, 915 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes risk factors, dietary intake, waist circumference and BMI, higher β-carotene intakes associated inversely with diabetes risk [Hazard Ratio quartile 4 versus quartile 1 (HRQ4): 0.78 (95%CI:0.64,0.95), P-linear trend 0.01]. For α-carotene, a borderline significant reduced risk was observed, with a HRQ4 of 0.85 (95%CI:0.70,1.03), and P-linear trend 0.05. β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein & zeaxanthin, and the sum of all carotenoids did not associate with diabetes risk.

      Conclusions

      This study shows that diets high in β-carotene and α-carotene are associated with reduced type 2 diabetes in generally healthy men and women.

      Keywords

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