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Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses| Volume 28, ISSUE 11, P1081-1091, November 2018

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Diabetes mellitus, blood glucose and the risk of heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

  • D. Aune
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, Paddington, London, W2 1PG, UK. Fax: +44 0 20 7594 0768.
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

    Department of Nutrition, Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway

    Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
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  • S. Schlesinger
    Affiliations
    Institute for Biometry and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research at the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • M. Neuenschwander
    Affiliations
    Institute for Biometry and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research at the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • T. Feng
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
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  • I. Janszky
    Affiliations
    Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    Regional Center for Health Care Improvement, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
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  • T. Norat
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
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  • E. Riboli
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
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      Highlights

      • Data regarding diabetes mellitus and heart failure have not been summarized.
      • A meta-analysis of 77 prospective studies was conducted.
      • Diabetes was associated with a 2-fold increase in heart failure risk in the general population.
      • Diabetes was associated with a 69% increase in heart failure risk in patient populations.
      • Elevated blood glucose even in the pre-diabetic range also increased heart failure risk.

      Abstract

      Background and Aim

      The strength of the association between diabetes and risk of heart failure has differed between previous studies and the available studies have not been summarized in a meta-analysis. We therefore quantified the association between diabetes and blood glucose and heart failure in a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Methods and results

      PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to May 3rd 2018. Prospective studies on diabetes mellitus or blood glucose and heart failure risk were included. A random effects model was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seventy seven studies were included. Among the population-based prospective studies, the summary RR for individuals with diabetes vs. no diabetes was 2.06 (95% CIs: 1.73−2.46, I2 = 99.8%, n = 30 studies, 401495 cases, 21416780 participants). The summary RR was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15–1.32, I2 = 78.2%, n = 10, 5344 cases, 91758 participants) per 20 mg/dl increase in blood glucose and there was evidence of a J-shaped association with nadir around 90 mg/dl and increased risk even within the pre-diabetic blood glucose range. Among the patient-based studies the summary RR was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.57–1.81, I2 = 85.5%, pheterogeneity<0.0001) for diabetes vs. no diabetes (n = 41, 100284 cases and >613925 participants) and 1.25 (95% CI: 0.89–1.75, I2 = 95.6%, pheterogeneity<0.0001) per 20 mg/dl increase in blood glucose (1016 cases, 34309 participants, n = 2). In the analyses of diabetes and heart failure there was low or no heterogeneity among the population-based studies that adjusted for alcohol intake and physical activity and among the patient-based studies there was no heterogeneity among studies with ≥10 years follow-up.

      Conclusions

      These results suggest that individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing heart failure and there is evidence of increased risk even within the pre-diabetic range of blood glucose.

      Keywords

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