- •This is the latest study that systematically explores the effects of coffee consumption on blood lipid.
- •The results showed that coffee consumption significantly increased TC, TG and LDL-C while had no significant effect on HDL-C.
- •Dose–response analysis results revealed a positive nonlinear relation between coffee consumption and TC, LDL-C and TG changes.
- •This meta-analysis suggested that coffee consumption may be associated with an elevated risk for dyslipidemia and CVDs.
Background and aim
Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disease worldwide and also an important predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Coffee is loved by people all over the world; however, the association between coffee consumption and blood lipids has yielded inconsistent results. So we carried this meta-analysis to explore the effects of coffee consumption on blood lipids.
Methods and results
Medline, PubMed, Web of science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched until April 2020. Combined weighted mean differences (WMD) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effects models, and between-study heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were also conducted to explore the potential heterogeneity. A total of 12 RCT studies involving the association between coffee consumption and blood lipid levels were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that coffee consumption significantly increased total cholesterol (TC) (WMD: 0.21 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.39, P = 0.017), triglyceride (TG) (WMD: 0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.03; 0.20, P = 0.006) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (WMD: 0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.05; 0.24, P = 0.003) while had no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (WMD: −0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.06; 0.04, P = 0.707). Dose–response analysis results revealed significant positive nonlinear associations between coffee consumption and the increase in TC, LDL-C, and TG levels.
Evidence from this meta-analysis suggested that coffee consumption may be associated with an elevated risk for dyslipidemia and CVDs. So a reasonable habit of coffee consumption (<3 cups/d) is essential for the prevention of dyslipidemia.
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Published online: August 20, 2020
Accepted: August 14, 2020
Received in revised form: July 27, 2020
Received: December 28, 2019Handling Editor: A. Naska
© 2020 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.