- •Several novel foods that can help reduce LDL cholesterol were discovered.
- •These include flaxseeds, almonds, avocados, tomatoes, turmeric, and green tea.
- •LDL cholesterol can however be increased by unfiltered coffee and possibly by sugar.
- Arnett D.K.
- Blumenthal R.S.
- Albert M.A.
- Buroker A.B.
- Goldberger Z.D.
- Hahn E.J.
- et al.
Data sources and searches
Data extraction and risk of bias assessment
Data synthesis and analysis
Utvärdering av metoder i hälso- och sjukvården och insatser i socialtjänsten - en handbok. Stockholm.
Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0.
|Author, year||Design||Interventions/comparison||Daily dose (mean ± SD and/or range)||Duration||Participants analysed, n overall (per group, % male)||Population||Age in years (mean ± SD and/or range)||Baseline LDL-C (mean ± SD mmol/L)||Risk of bias||Country||Funding|
Coffee consumption increases the antioxidant capacity of plasma and has No effect on the lipid profile or vascular function in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial.
J Nutr. 2016; 146: 524-531
|Parallel||Three groups: high vs medium chlorogenic acid coffee vs no coffee||400 mL (780 mg chlorogenic acids in high and 420 mg in medium group)||8 w||74 (24 + 25 + 25, 51%)||Healthy||20–60||2.78 ± 0.59||Some concerns (randomization)||Colombia||N/A|
|Crossover||Boiled coffee vs boiled and filtered coffee||6–10 dL||4 w||20 (15%)||Healthy||45 ± 8||3.8 ± 0.9||Some concerns (randomization)||Finland||Food Research Foundation|
|Crossover||Three interventions: instant coffee vs instant tea vs rosehip ‘tea’a,b||8 cups||3 w||12 (50%)||Healthy||33–45||3.02 ± 0.19||Some concerns (randomization)||Finland||N/A, Academy of Finland|
|Crossover||Three interventions: boiled coffee vs filtered coffee vs teab,c||8 cups||4 w||42 (50%)||Hyper-cholesterolemic||49 (31–60)||6.04 ± 0.16||Some concerns (randomization)||Finland||Finnish Food Research Foundation|
|Crossover||Boiled coffee vs filtered coffeec||5.7 (2–14) cups||4 w||41 (32%)||Healthy||45 (23–61)||~3.5||Some concerns (randomization)||Finland||Food Research Foundation|
|Parallel||Three groups: boiled coffee vs filtered coffee vs no coffeea,c||4–6 cups||12 w||101 (33 + 34 + 34, 48%)||Healthy||26 ± 4||3.2 ± 1.1||Some concerns (randomization)||Netherlands||Committee on Physiological Effects of Coffee, Netherlands Prevention Fund and Netherlands Heart Foundation|
|Crossover||Medium-light vs medium roast coffee|
|3 or 4 cups||4 w||20 (30%)||Healthy||50 ± 9||3.1 ± 0.5||Some concerns (randomization)||Brazil||FAPESP, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development|
|Parallel||Three groups: espresso vs mocha vs tea|
|3.1 ± 1.2 vs 2.8 ± 1.1 cups (espresso, 25–35 mL/cup and mocha, 40–50 mL/cup)||6 w||84 (28 + 28 +28, 100%)||Healthy soldiers||27 ± 1||3.0 ± 0.6||Some concerns (randomization)||Italy||Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee|
|Crossover||Regular coffee vs decaffeinated coffee||4–6 cups||6 w||45 (49%)||Healthy||38 ± 7 (25–45)||N/A||Low||Netherlands||Netherlands Heart Foundation|
|Parallel||Three groups: boiled coffee vs boiled and filtered coffee vs no coffee||6 cups (0.9 L)||79 d||64 (22 + 21 +21, 52%)||Healthy||39 ± 8||3.4 ± 0.8||Some concerns (randomization)||Netherlands||Netherlands Heart Foundation|
|Parallel||Four groups: regular coffee in high vs low dose vs decaffeinated coffee vs no coffee||720 mL in high dose and de-caffeinated groups, 360 mL in low dose group||8 w||100 (25 + 25 + 25 + 25, 100%)||Healthy||44 ± 10||3.3 ± 0.8||Some concerns (randomization)||USA||National Coffee Association and Outpatient Clinical Research Center from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda|
|Parallel||Dark roast vs medium roast coffee|
|4–5 cups||3 mo||114 (56 + 58, 34%)||Overweight||49 ± 12||3.5 ± 0.9||Some concerns (randomization)||Germany||Tchibo GmbH|
|Crossover||Coffee vs no coffee||3.6 (2.1–6.7) cups||2 mo||21 (100%)||Healthy, white||35 ± 6 (22–45)||3.2 ± 0.8||Low||USA||University Physicians Foundation of the University of Tennessee|
|Crossover||Regular moka vs decaffeinated moka||3 cups||5 w||49 (51%)||Healthy||23 (21–28)||2.7 ± 0.6||Some concerns (randomization)||Italy||N/A|
|Parallel||Three groups: high vs low dose coffee vs water||5 (high dose, water) or 3 (low dose) cups||8 w||160 (53 + 53 + 54, N/A)||Healthy (56% overweight)||51 ± 12||N/A||Some concerns (randomization)||Netherlands||Kraft Foods and University of Olso|
|Parallel||Three groups: regular coffee vs decaffeinated coffee vs no coffee||4.5 ± 1.1 (3–6) cups||8 w||181 (62 + 61 + 58, 100%)||Healthy||46 ± 10||3.7 ± 0.9||Some concerns (randomization)||USA||National Institutes of Health|
|Parallel||Cafetiere vs filtered coffee||5–6 cups (0.9 L)||24 w||46 (22 + 24, 50%)||Healthy||29 ± 10||3.0||Some concerns (randomization)||Netherlands||Netherlands Heart Foundation through the Netherlands Organisation of Scientific Research|
|Parallel||Three groups: regular arabica coffee vs arabica decaffeinated coffee vs arabica/robusta decaffeinated coffee||750–1000 mL||6 w||116 (39 + 39 + 38, 51%)||Healthy students||25 ± 3||3.4 ± 0.6||Some concerns (randomization)||Germany||Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee|
|Parallel||Three groups: instant regular coffee vs instant decaffeinated coffee vs water||5 cups (885 mL)||8 w||45 (16 + 14 + 15, 36%)||Healthy, overweight||41 ± 13||2.5 ± 0.8||Low||USA||Boston Obesity Nutrition Research Center and National Center for Research Resources|
|Parallel||Five groups: Regular coffee vs zero-dose vs low-dose vs middle-dose vs high-dose hydroxyhydro-quinone coffee||1 cup (183 mL)||4 w||183 (37 + 37 + 37 + 35 + 37, 50%)||Mildly hyper-tensive||49 ± 10||3.3 ± 0.8||Some concerns (randomization)||Japan||Kao Corporation|
|Food||Effect on LDL cholesterol|
|Foods high in n-6 PUFA and/or MUFA and low in SFA; e.g. canola oil||Moderate to large reduction|
|Foods high in soluble fiber; e.g. psyllium, oats, and barley||Moderate reduction||High|
|Foods with added plant sterols or stanols||Moderate reduction||High|
|Flaxseeds (whole)||Small to moderate reduction||High|
|Soy protein||Small to moderate reduction||High|
|Tomatoes||Small to moderate reduction||High|
|Fish||No clear effect||High|
|Decaffeinated coffee (in place of regular coffee)||No effect||High|
|Filtered coffee||No effect||High|
|Foods high in SFA or trans fatty acids (i.e. solid and tropical fats)||Moderate to large increase|
|Unfiltered coffee (in place of filtered coffee)||Moderate to large increase||High|
|Avocados||Moderate to large reduction||Moderate|
|Turmeric||Moderate to large reduction||Moderate|
|Hazelnuts||Small to moderate reduction||Moderate|
|Pulses||Small to moderate reduction||Moderate|
|Green tea||At least small reduction||Moderate|
|Fiber, whole grains||Small reduction||Moderate|
|Darker roast coffee||No clear effect||Moderate|
|Fructose (in place of sucrose/glucose)||No clear effect||Moderate|
|Marine oils (high in long-chain n-3 PUFA)||Very small increase||Moderate|
|Free sugars||Small increase||Moderate|
|Coffee (in place of tea)||Small to moderate increase||Moderate|
|Garlic powder||Small to moderate reduction||Low|
|Probiotics and prebiotics||Small to moderate reduction||Low|
|Cumin||Small to moderate reduction||Low|
|Foods high in resistant starch||Small reduction||Low|
|High-polyphenol olive oil (in place of low-polyphenol)||Small reduction||Low|
|Foods high in α-linolenic acid, e.g. flaxseed oil||No clear effect||Low|
|Foods high in medium-chain (in place on of long-chain) SFA||No clear effect||Low|
|Berries||Small to moderate reduction||Very low|
|Garlic||Small to moderate reduction||Very low|
|Black tea||At least small reduction||Very low|
|Dark chocolate/cocoa products||At least small reduction||Very low|
|Alcoholic drinks||Small reduction||Very low|
|Dairy products (all, high-fat, low-fat)||No clear effect||Very low|
|Grape polyphenols||No clear effect||Very low|
|Synbiotics||No clear effect||Very low|
|Whey protein||No clear effect||Very low|
|Fruit juice||No effect||Very low|
|Red meat||No effect||Very low|
|Sweeteners||No effect||Very low|
Chocolate and cocoa
Eggs and other cholesterol-rich foods
Fiber and whole grains
Fruits, berries, and vegetables
Grapes and wine
Nuts and seeds
Plant sterols and stanols
Probiotics and prebiotics
- Agudelo-Ochoa G.M.
- Pulgarín-Zapata I.C.
- Velásquez-Rodriguez C.M.
- Duque-Ramírez M.
- Naranjo-Cano M.
- Quintero-Ortiz M.M.
- et al.
Declaration of competing interest
Appendix A. Supplementary data
- Multimedia component 1
- Multimedia component 2
Deviations from protocol
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