- •Increased screen time is associated with an increased risk of MetS among children and adolescents.
- •High-level screen time was associated with a statistically significant 58% increase in odds of MetS among children and adolescents.
- •There was a 29% increase in odds of MetS per 2 h of screen time per day.
- •More research is needed considering the type of screen time and study design.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its consequences are one of the main public health challenges worldwide. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of studies that examined the association between screen time and the MetS among children and adolescents.
A systematic search was conducted using electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library, for studies published from 1963 up to 2 May 2022. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, observational studies with cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort design evaluating the association between screen time and MetS were included. Random effects models and linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses were used to pool study results.
Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary OR of MetS among children and adolescents for the highest vs. lowest time of screen time was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.32–2.03, with little evidence of heterogeneity, I2 = 9.3%, P-heterogeneity = 0.35, n = 7 studies) and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.27–2.12, I2 = 27.7%, n = 6) for cross-sectional studies. Results persisted across several additional subgroup analyses. There was a linear positive association between screen time and the risk of MetS (P dose-response < 0.0001; P nonlinearity = 0.64) with an OR of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.12–1.46) per 2 h/day increment in screen time.
The current dose-response meta-analysis suggested that increased screen time is associated with an increased risk of MetS among children and adolescents. Public health strategies may target unhealthy screen-based related behaviors to halt the development of MetS among children and adolescents.
Abbreviations:MetS (metabolic syndrome), BMI (body mass index), PA (physical activity), TV (television), AHRQ (Healthcare Research and Quality), OR (odds ratio), CI (confidence interval), MESH (Medical Subject Heading), ATP (III) (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel), CVD (cardiovascular diseases)
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Published online: August 14, 2022
Accepted: August 3, 2022
Received in revised form: July 27, 2022
Received: January 24, 2022Handling Editor: A. Siani
© 2022 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.