- •The fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is underestimated using the classical tools.
- •Algorithms for the detection of patients at high fracture risk have been suggested.
- •They showed a good sensitivity in identifying diabetic women at high fracture risk.
- •As many as 13% of patients with treatment indication experienced an incident fracture.
Background and aims
Methods and results
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
- Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis: a guide to optimal management.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 102: 3621-3634https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00042
- Discrepancies in bone mineral density and fracture risk in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes - a meta-analysis.Osteoporos Int. 2007; 18: 427-444https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-006-0253-4
- FRAX underestimates fracture risk in patients with diabetes.J Bone Miner Res. 2012; 27: 301-308https://doi.org/10.1002/JBMR.556
- DXA-based measurements in diabetes: can they predict fracture risk?.Calcif Tissue Int. 2017; 100: 150-164https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-016-0191-x
- Comparison of methods for improving fracture risk assessment in diabetes: the manitoba BMD registry.J Bone Miner Res. 2018; 33: 1923-1930https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3538
- Management of bone fragility in type 2 diabetes: perspective from an interdisciplinary expert panel.Nutr Metabol Cardiovasc Dis. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.04.014
- In postmenopausal female subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, vertebral fractures are independently associated with cortisol secretion and sensitivity.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100: 1417-1425https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-4177
FRAX n.d. https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/FRAX/tool.aspx?lang=it (accessed February 16, 2022).
- Commentary: a revised clinician's guide to the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93: 2463-2465https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-0926
- Vertebral fracture assessment: enhancing the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis.Bone. 2017; 104: 54-65https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2017.03.004
- Vertebral fracture assessment using a semiquantitative technique.vol. 8. 1993
- Executive summary of the 2019 ISCD position development conference on monitoring treatment, DXA cross-calibration and least significant change, spinal cord injury, peri-prosthetic and orthopedic bone health, transgender medicine, and pediatrics.J Clin Densitom. 2019; 22: 453-471https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2019.07.001
- Meta-analysis in clinical trials.Contr Clin Trials. 1986; 7: 177-188https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2
- Vertebral fractures in individuals with type 2 diabetes: more than skeletal complications alone.Diabetes Care. 2020; 43: 137-144https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-0925
- Association of bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and vertebral fractures with all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus.Calcif Tissue Int. 2018; 102https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-017-0324-x
- The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus, hip fracture, and post-hip fracture mortality: a multi-state cohort analysis.Osteoporos Int. 2019; 30: 2407-2415https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-019-05122-3
- Association of BMD and FRAX score with risk of fracture in older adults with type 2 diabetes.JAMA. 2011; 305: 2184-2192https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2011.715
- Fracture risk assessment in patients with diabetes mellitus.J Clin Densitom. 2017; 20: 432-443https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2017.06.011
- Type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Diabet Complicat. 2016; 30: 944-950https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.02.016
- HbA1c variability, in addition to mean HbA1c, predicts incident hip fractures in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes.Osteoporos Int. 2020; 31: 1955-1964https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-020-05395-z
- Glycated hemoglobin level and risk of hip fracture in older people with type 2 diabetes: a competing risk analysis of taiwan diabetes cohort study.J Bone Miner Res. 2015; 30: 1338-1346https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2462
- Unmasking fracture risk in type 2 diabetes: the association of longitudinal glycemic hemoglobin level and medications.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022; 107: e1390-e1401https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab882
- Misdiagnosis of vertebral fractures on local radiographic readings of the multicentre POINT (Prevalence of Osteoporosis in INTernal medicine) study.Bone. 2017; 101: 230-235https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2017.05.008