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A sub-analysis of the SAGE study in Italy indicates good glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

Open AccessPublished:November 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.11.008
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      Draft Highlights

      • Glycemic control can be considered good in the Italian SAGE cohort, especially in younger patients, who more frequently use pumps/continuous glucose monitoring.
      • Greater patient education and use of technology may further support this achievement.
      • Patients should be encouraged to maintain a low BMI and adhere to their diet.
      • Despite the encouraging results we obtained from this sub-analysis, a high rate of patients still do not reach their individualized target.

      Abstract

      Background and aims

      Intensive glycemic control minimizes the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We report glycemic control in Italian participants (age groups: 26–44, 45–64, and ≥65 years) of the global SAGE study.

      Methods and results

      The primary endpoint was proportion of participants who achieved an HbA1c <7% in predefined age groups. In the 523 patients with T1D, mean age was 44.6 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 25 kg/m2. Mean HbA1c was 7.5% and 29.4% had HbA1c <7.0%, with the highest percentage in those 26-45 years (31.7%) and the lowest in those ≥65 years (20%). Altogether, 22.9% of patients achieved their physician-established individualized HbA1c target. Most patients had ≥1 symptomatic hypoglycemic episode in the previous 3 months (≤70 mg/dL 82.5%; ≤54 mg/dL 61%). Severe hypo- and hyperglycemia were experienced by 16.3% and 12% of patients, of which 7.1 and 9.5%, respectively, required hospitalization/emergency visits. More patients achieved HbA1c <7% with CSII (30%) than with multiple daily insulin injections (27.9%). In multivariate analysis, BMI (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, p=0.032) and adherence to diet (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18-0.70, p=0.0028) were significantly associated with HbA1c <7.0%.

      Conclusions

      Glycemic control can be considered good in the Italian SAGE cohort, especially in younger patients, who more frequently use pumps/continuous glucose monitoring. Greater patient education and use of technology may further support this achievement. Patients should be encouraged to maintain a low BMI and adhere to their diet.

      Keywords